Transit-Based Smart Parking in the San Francisco Bay Area, California: Assessment of User Demand and Behavioral Effects

Authors: Caroline Rodier, Susan Shaheen, Amanda Eaken Published: December 31, 2005 Abstract: This paper presents early findings from an application of advanced parking technologies to increase effective parking capacity at a transit station during the first half of 2004 in the San Francisco Bay Area (California). It begins with an extensive review of the literature related to transit-based smart parking management systems to illustrate the range of system configurations and their potential travel, economic, and environmental effects. Two important conclusions from this review are: (1) lack of parking spaces at transit stations may be a significant constraint to transit use, and (2) pre-trip and, perhaps, en-route information on parking availability at transit stations may increase transit use. This is followed by a survey of commuters at the Rockridge BART station that was implemented to gain insight into parking needs, the travel effects of a new monthly paid parking program, and the potential travel effects of a smart parking service. First, it was found that a potential market exists for a daily paid parking information service among current and new riders with relatively high incomes, high auto availability, and variable work locations and schedules. Second, the current monthly reserved paid parking service may have increased the frequency of BART use among subscribers, but it has not reduced net auto travel because of diversions to BART from carpool, bus, and bike modes for their main commute and increased drive alone access to the BART station. View...

EasyConnect II: Integrating Transportation, Information, and Energy Technologies at the Pleasant Hill BART Transit Oriented Development

Authors: Susan A. Shaheen, Caroline Rodier, Tagan Blake, Jeffrey R. Lidicker, and Elliot Martin Date: December 2009 Abstract: Smart growth policy strategies attempt to control increasing auto travel, congestion, and vehicle emissions by redirecting new development into communities with a high-intensity mix of shopping, jobs, and housing that is served by high-quality modal alternatives to single occupant vehicles. The integration of innovative technologies with traditional modal options in transit-oriented developments (TODs) may be the key to providing the kind of high-quality transit service that can effectively compete with the automobile in suburban transit corridors. A major challenge, however, of such an integration strategy is the facilitation of a well-designed and seamless multi-modal connection infrastructure – both informational and physical. EasyConnect II explored the introduction and integration of multi-modal transportation services, both traditional and innovative technologies, at the Pleasant Hill Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) District station during the initial construction phase of the Contra Costa Centre Transit Village (or TOD) in the East San Francisco Bay Area. The project explored the integration of following in this TOD: 1) shared-use, low-speed vehicles, 2) electronic lockers (“eLockers”) with reservation capabilities: smart transit-based parking technology; 3) a protocol for a webbased information system (Mobility Options Protocol or MOP) to obtain information about available modal options and transportation services; and 4) innovative distributed power generation technologies to help meet growing electrical loads associated with the introduction of advanced electronic transportation and information technology systems....

EasyConnect: Low-Speed Modes Linked to Public Transit Field Test Results

Authors: Susan A. Shaheen, Ph.D. and Caroline J. Rodier, Ph.D. Date: September 2008 Abstract: Access from public transit stations to employment and home locations can be a significant barrier to public transportation use in many urban regions, which is also commonly known as the “first and last mile” problem. The EasyConnect field test operated from August 2005 to December 2006 to introduce shared-use electric bicycles, non-motorized bicycles, and Segway® Human Transporters (HTs) to employment centers in and around the Pleasant Hill BART District stations. EasyConnect linked 36 employees of 14 companies at the Contra Costa Centre and Fresenius Medical. Contra Costa Centre took over the management of the EasyConnect program, which is now called “Green Fleet” and is operating an expanded and upgraded fleet of Segway HTs, electric bicycles, and bikes. Although the EasyConnect program was initially designed to bridge the barriers to access from public transit stations to employment locations, the results of the field test indicated higher participation demand by Day Users (e.g., lunch, business meetings, errands) rather than by commuters. This may have been a function of the institutional support available for the program in the area. The Contra Costa Centre, which is walking distance from the Pleasant Hill BART station, was able to provide significantly more support to the program relative to employers and business centers further away from the station. The availability of the low-speed modes for Day Use at the Contra Costa Centre, however, may have allowed for a higher level of public transit use and carpool commuting. Even without accounting for such mode shifts, the evaluation results indicate net benefits for both...

EasyConnect: Low-Speed Modes Linked to Transit Planning Project

Authors: Susan A. Shaheen, Ph.D. and Caroline Rodier, Ph.D. Date: June 2006 Abstract: The EasyConnect Low-Speed Modes Linked to Transit Planning Project (TO 5113) project represents the integration of innovative strategies to enhance transit use during the development and construction of a suburban transit oriented development at the Pleasant Hill Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) District station in the East San Francisco Bay Area. This planning project brings together a unique partnership including small technology businesses, transportation agencies, city and county government, and academia. The project components include the introduction of shared-use low speed mode vehicles and electronic lockers at the proposed TOD. The evaluation of the EasyConnect field operational test (TO 6113-the next phase of this initiative) will provide insights into whether the introduction and integration of low-speed modes and elockers at the Pleasant Hill BART station can significantly increase transit access/use and cost effectively provide a last mile solution...

EasyConnect II:Integrating Transportation, Information, and Energy Technologies at Transit Oriented Developments

Authors: Susan A. Shaheen, Ph.D., Caroline J. Rodier, Ph.D., and Joshua Seelig Dates: July 2005 Abstract: The integration of innovative technologies with traditional modal options in transit oriented developments (TODs) may be the key to providing the kind of high-quality transit service that can effectively compete with the automobile in suburban transit corridors. The EasyConnect II project represents a multi-technology integration of innovative strategies planned to enhance transit use during the development and construction of a suburban TOD at the Pleasant Hill Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) District station in the East San Francisco Bay Area. The project team represents a unique partnership including small technology businesses, private developers, transportation agencies, city and county government, and academia. The project components include the introduction of shared-use low-speed mode vehicles, smart parking management systems, electronic lockers, and power supplied by a hydrogen fuel cell at the proposed TOD. The various technologies will seamlessly be linked over the Internet in formats accessible to both end-users and project planners. The evaluation of the proposed study will provide insight into whether the introduction and integration of innovative technologies at TODs can significantly increase transit access and use. If the innovations introduced in this study prove successful, then their application could be expanded throughout the region, California, and the nation....