*The MOD Sandbox Demonstrations are sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). The MOD Sandbox Demonstrations Independent Evaluation is sponsored by the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT), jointly by the Intelligent Transportation Systems – Joint Program Office (ITS JPO) and the FTA. All documents are USDOT publications.

Read “California Transportation Plan 2050: Northern and Southern California Visioning Sessions Findings” by Susan Shaheen, PhD, Hannah Totte, and Adam Cohen.

Improving California’s transportation system requires cross-sector collaboration, particularly as technologies, policies, and regulations develop simultaneously. The California Transportation Plan (CTP) 2050 aims to integrate perspectives a diverse array of stakeholder perspectives that may not typically participate in the statewide planning process. The Visioning Sessions facilitated two day-long visioning workshops in October 2018 in Southern and Northern California. Overall, these visioning sessions initiated a much-needed dialogue among experts and practitioners from diverse backgrounds and allowed participants to conceptualize idealized visions for California’s transportation system through 2050. Key goals of the visioning sessions included:

1. Developing visions for CTP2050 incorporating diverse perspectives from an array of statewide stakeholders including private and public sector, academic, and non-profit experts;

2. Identifying existing and policy and investment strategies to actualize the idealized states; and

3. Translating high-level policy and investment suggestions into actionable items.



Read “The Benefits of Carpooling” by Susan Shaheen, PhD, Adam Cohen, and Alexandre Bayen. Carpooling allows travelers to share a ride to a common destination and can include several forms of sharing a ride, such as casual carpooling and real-time carpooling. Because carpooling reduces the number of automobiles needed by travelers, it is often associated with numerous societal benefitsincluding: 1) reductions in energy consumption and emissions, 2) congestion mitigation, and 3) reduced parking infrastructure demand. In recent years, economic, environmental, and social forces coupled with technological innovations are encouraging shared and pooled services. Shared mobility is changing how people travel and is having a transformative impact on mobility. This chapter reviews key trends impacting the mobility marketplace including the growth of shared mobility and key demographic indicators, such as an aging population and Millennials entering the workforce. For decades, carpooling has been used as a strategy by numerous public agencies and employers as a strategy to address a range of climate, environmental, and congestion mitigation goals, while simultaneously increasing roadway and parking capacity. This chapter discusses how employers and public agencies can support carpooling. This chapter concludes with a summary of key findings from the report.








Read “Managing the Transition to Shared Automated Vehicles: Building Today While Designing for Tomorrow” by Susan Shaheen, PhD and Adam Cohen in Meeting of the Minds. 

We often get asked questions from urban planners, policymakers, and real estate professionals asking how they should prepare for the future of mobility, today. Some are architects and developers wanting to know how their buildings and planned communities should be designed in a shared automated future. Some are planners and policymakers wanting to know if and how their zoning and building codes should be amended to prepare.

In an automated future, cities could change in three fundamental ways:

  1. The density of urban centers is likely to increase.
  2. Suburban and exurban areas are likely to expand.
  3. A reduction in parking is likely.

Read “Big Data, Automation, and the Future of Transportation” by Susan Shaheen, PhD, and Adam Cohen in Meeting of the Minds. 

In recent years, a variety of forces (economic, environmental, and social) have quickly given rise to “shared mobility,” a collective of entrepreneurs and consumers leveraging technology to share transportation resources, save money, and generate capital. Bikesharing services, such as BCycle, and business-to-consumer carsharing services, such as Zipcar, have become part of a sociodemographic trend that has pushed shared mobility from the fringe to the mainstream. The role of shared mobility in the broader landscape of urban mobility has become a frequent topic of discussion. Shared transportation modes—such as bikesharing, carsharing, ridesharing, ridesourcing/transportation network companies (TNCs), and microtransit—are changing how people travel and are having a transformative effect on smart cities.

Read “Understanding How Cities Can Link Smart Mobility Priorities Through Data” by Susan Shaheen, PhD, Elliot Martin, PhD, Mikaela Hoffman-Stapleton, and Peter Slowik.

This white paper presents a generalized evaluation framework that can be used for assessing project impacts within the context of transportation-related city projects. In support of this framework, we discuss a selection of metrics and data sources that are needed to evaluate the performance of smart city innovations. We first present a collection of projects and applications from near-term smart city concepts or actual pilot projects underway (i.e., Smart City Challenge, Federal Transit Administration (FTA) Mobility on Demand (MOD) Sandbox, and other pilot projects operating in the regions of Los Angeles, Portland, and San Francisco). These projects are identified and explained in Section 2 of this report. Using these projects as the basis for hypothetical case studies, we present selected metrics that would be necessary to evaluate and monitor the performance of such innovations over time. We then identify the data needs to compute those metrics and further highlight the gaps in known data resources that should be covered to enable their computation. The objective of this effort is to help guide future city planners, policy makers, and practitioners in understanding the design of key metrics 3 and data needs at the outset of a project to better facilitate the establishment of rigorous and thoughtful data collection requirements.

Read “Peer-To-Peer (P2P) Carsharing: Understanding Early Markets, Social Dynamics, and Behavioral Impacts” by Susan Shaheen, PhD, Elliot Martin, PhD, and Apaar Bansal.


Shared mobility services have now become firmly integrated into urban transportation systems across the globe. Carsharing, bikesharing, ridesourcing or transportation network companies (TNCs), and other systems now offer urban travelers access to transportation services that had long been previously only possible through personal vehicle ownership. Carsharing is arguably the pioneer mode of the sharing economy, given it ushered in a new way of thinking and access to the private automobile in the 20th century. Since its North American inception in Montreal in 1994, carsharing has undergone several waves of innovation. With each innovation, carsharing has deployed new functionality, technology, and business models. One of the more prominent innovations in carsharing has been peer-to-peer (P2P) carsharing, which enables individuals to leverage information technology to share their personal vehicles with others in their area. The P2P carsharing industry has gone through some evolution of its own since its initial establishment.

Read “Transportation Research Circular: U.S. Department of Transportation’s Mobility on Demand Initiative” by Susan Shaheen, PhD, Adam Cohen, and Elliot Martin, PhD.

The market for personal mobility is changing rapidly due to shifting social and cultural trends, as well as technological advances such as smartphones, information processing, and widespread data connectivity. Mobility on Demand (MOD) is an innovative transportation concept. On the supply side, transportation providers manage mobility rather than traffic through demand-responsive service, shifting use to alternate modes. On the demand side, mobility consumers reserve, dispatch, or use innovative mobility, public transportation, and goods delivery strategies in place of privately owned vehicles. The most-advanced forms of MOD incorporate trip planning and booking, real-time information, and fare payment into a single-user interface. Modes facilitated through MOD providers can include carsharing, bikesharing, ridesharing, ridesourcing, or transportation network companies (TNCs), scooter sharing, microtransit, shuttle services, public transportation, and other emerging transportation solutions.

Listen to “The Mobility Podcast” with Susan A. Shaheen, as she discusses the recent report: “Travel Behavior: Shared Mobility and Transportation Equity.”  This episode was recorded live at the Next Urbanism Conference, in Portland, OR.

Read “Future of Mobility White Paper” as part of CALTRANS California Transportation Plan 2050, by Susan Shaheen, PhD, Hannah Totte, and Adam Stocker.

Transportation is arguably experiencing its most transformative revolution since the introduction of the automobile. Concerns over climate change and equity are converging with dramatic technological advances. Although these changes – including shared mobility and automation – are rapidly altering the mobility landscape, predictions about the future of transportation are complex, nuanced, and widely debated. California is required by law to renew the California Transportation Plan (CTP), updating its models and policy considerations to reflect industry changes every five years. This document is envisioned as a reference for modelers and decision makers. We aggregate current information and research on the state of key trends and emerging technologies/services, documented impacts on California’s transportation ecosystem, and future growth projections (as appropriate).

Read “Mobility on Demand: Operational Concept Report” by Susan Shaheen, PhD, Adam Cohen, Balaji Yelchuru, and Sara Sarkhili.

This operational concept report provides an overview of the Mobility on Demand (MOD) concept and its evolution, description of the MOD ecosystem in a supply and demand framework, and its stakeholders and enablers. Leveraging the MOD ecosystem framework, this report reviews the key enablers of the system including business models and partnerships, land use and different urbanization scenarios, social equity and environmental justice, policies and standards, and enabling technologies. This review is mostly focused on the more recent forms of MOD (e.g., shared mobility).

Read “Travel Behavior: Shared Mobility and Transportation Equity” by Susan Shaheen, PhD, Corwin Bell, Adam Cohen, and Balaji Yelchuru.

Shared mobility—the shared use of a motor vehicle, bicycle, or other low-speed transportation mode that allows users to obtain short-term access to transportation on an as-needed basis—has the potential to help address some transportation equity challenges. In an effort to categorize the myriad of transportation equity barriers facing transportation system users, this primer proposes a ‘STEPS to Transportation Equity’ framework including: Spatial, Temporal, Economic, Physiological, and Social barriers. For each barrier category, shared mobility opportunities and challenges are explored along with policy recommendations.

Read “Shared Mobility: Current Practices and Guiding Principles” by Susan Shaheen, PhD, Adam Cohen, and Ismail Zohdy.


This primer provides an introduction and background to shared mobility; discusses the government’s role; reviews success stories; examines challenges, lessons learned, and proposed solutions; and concludes with guiding principles for public agencies. The primer provides an overview of current practices in this emerging field, and it also looks toward the future in the evolution and development of shared mobility.

Two-page Overiew

Glossary of Shared Mobility Terms





Read “Mobile Apps and Transportation: A Review of Smartphone Apps and a Study of User Response to Multimodal Traveler Information” by Susan Shaheen, PhD, Elliot Martin, PhD, Adam Cohen, Apoorva Musunuri, and Abhinav Bhattacharyya.

In recent years, technological and social forces have pushed smartphone applications (apps) from the fringe to the mainstream. Understanding the role of transportation apps in urban mobility is important for policy development and transportation planners. This study evaluates the role and impact of multimodal aggregators from a variety of perspectives, including a literature review; a review of the most innovative, disruptive, and highest-rated transportation apps; interviews with experts in the industry, and a user survey of former multimodal aggregator RideScout
users. Between February and April 2016, researchers conducted interviews with experts to gain a stronger understanding about challenges and benefits of data sharing between private companies and public agencies. Key findings from the expert interviews include the critical need to protect user privacy; the potential to use data sharing to address integrated corridor and congestion management as well as various pricing strategies during peak hours; along with the potential benefits for improving coordination between the public and private sectors. In March 2016, researchers surveyed 130 people who had downloaded the RideScout app to evaluate attitudes and perceptions toward mobile apps,
travel behavior, and modal shift. The goal was to enhance understanding of how the multimodal apps were impacting the transportation behavior. The survey did found that respondents used multimodal apps in ways that yielded travel that was less energy intensive and more supportive of public transit. Looking to the future, smartphone applications and more specifically multimodal aggregators, may offer the potential for transportation planners and policymakers to enhance their understanding of multimodal travel behavior, share data, enhance collaboration, and identify opportunities for public-private partnerships.


Read “Smartphone Applications to Influence Travel Choices: Practices and Policies” by Susan Shaheen, PhD, Adam Cohen, Ismail Zohdy, and Beaudry Kock.


This primer provides an overview of current practices in this emerging field and looks toward the future in the evolution and development of smartphone applications for the transportation sector. The primer provides an introduction and overview smartphone applications (known as “apps”); discusses the background, evolution, and development of smartphone apps; reviews the types of smartphone applications promoting transportation efficiency and congestion reduction; discusses transportation apps and their impacts on traveler behavior; examines current challenges; and concludes with guiding principles for public agencies.

Two-page Overview



Read “Shared Mobility: Definitions, Industry Developments, and Early Understanding” by Susan Shaheen, PhD, Nelson Chan, Apaar Bansal, and Adam Cohen.


This white paper includes an introduction and background to different types of shared modes, as well as smartphone-based trip planning apps that can facilitate access to public transit and shared mobility services. This paper also notes where potential benefits of shared mobility could align with the new mission of the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), which is to “Provide a safe, sustainable, integrated, and efficient transportation system to enhance California’s economy and livability.” We conclude the paper with a summary and provide an appendix with a glossary of terms and a list of the shared mobility models, including a range of companies in each sector.

Read “Shared Mobility: Retrospective from Caltrans Shared Mobility Workshop” by Susan Shaheen, PhD, Adam Stocker, and Apaar Bansal.


On September 8, 2015, UC Berkeley’s Transportation Sustainability Research Center (TSRC), in partnership with the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), hosted “Shared Mobility: A Sustainability and Technologies Workshop” at the UC Davis Conference Center. The workshop facilitated a dialogue among nearly 100 participants representing 28 organizations. There were 61 attendees from Caltrans, with 38 from Headquarters and 23 from various district offices. Caltrans employee attendees included planners, engineers, researchers, managers, and directors. In addition, nine participants were from the private sector and included individuals from shared mobility companies. There were 27 participants from other public agencies and universities.


This synopsis covers findings and discussions from the conference, and it summarizes the key topics explored throughout the day. The report starts off with recaps of the workshop introductions from Professor Susan Shaheen of UC Berkeley, Steve Cliff of Caltrans, and Socorro “Coco” Briseno of Caltrans. Next, the two expert panels are discussed in detail, touching upon key points made by each panel member and moderator. The breakout sessions are then covered, and the discussions regarding the impacts of shared mobility and on Caltrans planning and operations are reviewed. Finally, a conclusion summarizes the overall findings and key takeaways from the workshop.

Read “Shared-Use Mobility Summit: Retrospective from North America’s first gathering on shared-use mobility” by Susan Shaheen, PhD, and Matt Christensen.


Shared-use mobility-the shared use of a vehicle, bicycle or other low-speed mode-is an innovative transportation solution that enables users to have short-term access to a transportation mode. In North America, shared-use mobility encompasses the submarkets of carsharing, bikesharing, ridesharing, on-demand ride services, scooter sharing, shuttle services, and other emerging industries. In October 2013, the University of California, Berkeley’s Transportation Sustainability Research Center (TSRC) hosted the inaugural Shared-Use Mobility Summit in San Francisco, California. The summit was a two-day event that facilitated a dialogue among nearly 300 participants representing close to 200 organizations. Participants included mobility providers, policymakers, governmental agencies, non-profits, technologists, academics, media, other stakeholders, and affiliated industries. One hundred and five (105) private companies attended the summit, and 62 governmental agencies were represented at the summit. Additionally, 44 academics from 17 universities participated. Of the 194 organizations represented, 26 were affiliated with carsharing, 16 with bikesharing, and 6 were associated with ridesharing and ondemand ride services or transportation network companies (TNCs).

Read “Disrupting Mobility: Impacts of Sharing Economy and Innovative Transportation on Cities,” edited by Susan Shaheen, PhD, and Gereon Meyer. 

This book explores the opportunities and challenges of the sharing economy and innovative transportation technologies with regard to urban mobility. Written by government experts, social scientists, technologists and city planners from North America, Europe and Australia, the papers in this book address the impacts of demographic, societal and economic trends and the fundamental changes arising from the increasing automation and connectivity of vehicles, smart communication technologies, multimodal transit services, and urban design.

Read “Planning for Shared Mobility” by Susan Shaheen, PhD, and Adam Cohen.

In recent years, economic, environmental, and social forces have quickly given rise to the “sharing economy,” a collective of entrepreneurs and consumers leveraging technology to share resources, save money, and generate capital. Homesharing services, such as Airbnb, and peer-to-peer carsharing services, such as Getaround, have become part of a sociodemographic trend that has pushed the sharing economy from the fringe and more to the mainstream. The role of shared mobility in the broader landscape of urban mobility has become a frequent topic of discussion. Major shared transportation modes—such as bikesharing, carsharing, ridesourcing, and alternative transit services—are changing how people travel and are having a transformative effect on mobility and local planning.


Read “Mobility and the Sharing Economy: Impacts Synopsis” by Susan Shaheen, PhD, and Nelson Chan.


Shared Mobility – the shared use of a vehicle, bicycle, or other low-speed mode – is an innovativetransportation solution that enables users to have short-term access to transportation modes on an “as-needed” basis. Shared mobility includes carsharing, personal vehicle sharing (or peer-to-peer (P2P) carsharing), bikesharing, scooter sharing, shuttle services, ridesharing, and on-demand ride services. It can also include commercial delivery vehicles providing flexible goods movement. Shared mobility has had a transformative impact on many global cities by enhancing transportation accessibility while simultaneously reducing ownership of personal automobiles. In the context of carsharing and bikesharing, vehicles and bicycles are typically unattended, concentrated in a network of locations where the transaction of checking out a vehicle or bicycles is facilitated through information technology (IT) and other technological innovations. Usually, carsharing and bikesharing operators are responsible for the cost of maintenance, storage, parking, and insurance/fuel (if applicable). In the context of classic ridesharing (carpooling and vanpooling) and on-demand ride services, such as transportation network companies (TNCs), many of these providers employ IT to facilitate the matching of riders and drivers for trip making.



Read “Shared Mobility: Current Practices and Guiding Principles – Glossary” by Susan Shaheen, PhD, and Adam Cohen.


Includes definitions for: Alternative Transit Services, Bikesharing, Carpooling, Car Rental, Carsharing, Closed-Campus Bikesharing, Courier Network Services, E-Hail Apps, High-Tech Company Shuttles, Fixed Route and Fixed Schedule Microtransit, Flexible Route and On-Demand Schedule Microtransit, Flexible Transit Services, Fractional Ownership, Hybrid Peer-to-Peer, Limousines and Liveries, Microtransit, One-Way Carsharing, Paired On-Demand Passenger Ride and Courier Services, Pedicabs, Peer-to-Peer Access Model, Peer-to-Peer Carsharing, Peer-to-Peer Marketplace, Personal Vehicle Sharing, Public Transportation, Peer-to-Peer Bikesharing, Transportation Network Company/Ridesourcing, Ride-Hailing, Ridesplitting, Rountrip Carsharing, Scooter Sharing, Slugging, Taxis, and Vanpooling.


Explore IMR’s YouTube Channel, with keynote addresses, panel discussions, and other academic and industry gatherings.