Carsharing Parking Policy: Review of North American Practices and San Francisco, California, Bay Area Case Study

Authors: Susan Shaheen, PhD, Adam Cohen, and Elliot Martin, PhD Date: December 2010 Abstract:  Carsharing provides users access to a shared vehicle fleet for short-term use throughout the day, reducing the need for private vehicles. The provision of on-street and public off-street parking dedicated to carsharing is an important policy area confronting public agencies. As of July 2009, approximately 377,600 individuals were carsharing members in North America in about 57 metropolitan areas. Seventeen jurisdictions, one state (California), and eight public transit operators in North America have formal and informal carsharing parking policies, pilot projects, and proposed legislation. These policies, projects, and proposals are reviewed in this paper, along with a framework for carsharing parking policy that reflects three levels of government support. In addition, the authors examine carsharing parking policies in three jurisdictions in the San Francisco Bay Area in California that account for an estimated 50,000 carsharing members and 1,100 shared-use vehicles. Supporting this examination is an intercept survey on carsharing parking (n425) conducted in the Bay Area. Most people supported the conversion of some type of spaces for carsharing use, and 48% thought that carsharing organizations should compensate the city for on-street spaces. At the same time, converting most types of spaces was opposed by at least 20% of respondents. Neighborhood residents were generally more in favor of parking conversion for carsharing than people visiting the area for work or errands. Finally, a majority (61%) thought that nonprofits should have priority over for-profit organizations for carsharing spaces and should pay less than for-profit organizations. View...

MOD Sandbox Demonstrations Independent Evaluation: BART Integrated Carpool to Transit Access Program Evaluation Plan

Authors: Gustave Cordahi, Susan Shaheen, PhD, Elliot Martin, PhD Date: April 2018 Abstract:  The MOD Sandbox Demonstrations are sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). The MOD Sandbox Demonstrations Independent Evaluation is sponsored by the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT), jointly by the Intelligent Transportation Systems – Joint Program Office (ITS JPO) and the FTA. All documents are USDOT publications. You may access the document at: https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/36425 BART is the fifth-busiest heavy rail rapid transit system in the United States, carrying more than 430,000 daily riders. BART provides service in Northern California in four Bay Area counties: Alameda County, Contra Costa County, San Francisco County, and San Mateo County. The BART system is comprised of 107 miles of track, 46 stations, and 669 revenue vehicles. It provides access to many of the San Francisco Bay Area’s key destinations for work, school, and recreation. BART has over 3,400 employees and a combined annual capital and operating budget of over $1.5 billion. BART, the Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC), and Scoop Technologies, Inc. (Scoop), are partnering on a program to better integrate carpool access to public transit by matching passengers with a transit station as their destination, and providing a seamless way to reserve and pay for highly-coveted parking spaces at BART stations. BART offers 48,000 parking spaces at 34 of its 46 stations. The parking mix at BART includes “daily fee” first come/first served spaces (approximately 35,000 spaces), permit spaces (approximately 12,000 spaces), and a small number of carpool spaces (approximately 900 spaces). Demand for parking is high and the majority of spaces fill by 8am each weekday. However, only about 0.8 percent of those parking...

Carsharing: A Guide for Local Planners

Authors: Adam Cohen, Susan Shaheen, PhD, and Ryan McKenzie Date: June 2018 Abstract:  Transportation issues can create seemingly no-win conflicts for planners, whether it’s dealing with traffic demand management, wrangling over parking requirements, addressing quality of life issues that accompany traffic congestion, or trying to reduce vehicle emissions to forestall climate change. A new “product-as-service” approach to vehicle use, called carsharing, is springing up in major metropolitan markets, smaller districts, and university campuses all across the country. Where the conditions are right to support carsharing, these programs can give planners another flexible tool to help address these issues in their communities. Carsharing: A Guide for Local Planners provides an overview of what local governments and urban planners need to know about carsharing and key policies that can be used to encourage carsharing as a transportation alternative in your city....

Carsharing’s Impact and Future

Authors: Susan Shaheen, PhD, Adam Cohen, and Emily Farrar Date: October 2019 Abstract:  Carsharing provides members access to a fleet of autos for short-term use throughout the day, reducing the need for one or more personal vehicles. This chapter reviews key terms and definitions for carsharing, common carsharing business models, and existing impact studies. Next, the chapter discusses the commodification and aggregation of mobility services and the role of Mobility on Demand (MOD) and Mobility as a Service (MaaS) on carsharing. Finally, the chapter concludes with a discussion of how the convergence of electrification and automation is changing carsharing, leading to shared automated and electric vehicle (SAEV) fleets....

Shared mobility and urban form impacts: a case study of peer-to-peer (P2P) carsharing in the US

Authors: Susan Shaheen, PhD, Elliot Martin, PhD, and Mikaela Hoffman-Stapleton Date: November 2019 Abstract:  This paper advances the understanding of peer-to-peer (P2P) carsharing within the broader context of shared mobility and its connection to the built environment in the US through a survey conducted in 2014 (n = 1,151). Eleven percent of respondents used carpooling/ridesharing more, and 19% avoided a vehicle purchase due to P2P vehicle access in urban areas. Nevertheless, P2P carsharing has the potential to operate in a range of land-use environments and could be an important strategy to further deemphasize car ownership. Additionally, as the deployment of automated vehicles (AVs) is examined, sharing of privately owned AVs could mirror current P2P carsharing dynamics in important ways....