One-Way Electric Vehicle Carsharing in San Diego: An Exploration of the Behavioral Impacts of Pricing Incentives on Operational Efficiency

Authors: Susan Shaheen, Ph.D., Elliot Martin, Ph.D., Apaar Bansal Date: January 2018 Abstract: This project is a two-year evaluation of pricing/incentives applied to the one-way, all electric carsharing system operated by car2go in San Diego, CA. This system is the only electric vehicle-based, one-way carsharing system with instant access (i.e., accessible without reservation) operating in the U.S. The goal of this project is to work with car2go and the San Diego region to develop and evaluate pricing/incentive structures for their members, which improve system operational efficiency (vehicle redistribution, state-of-charge management, use of vehicles placed at public transit stations) and encourage shared-vehicle use. View...

Shared-Use Vehicle Services for Sustainable Transportation: Carsharing, Bikesharing, and Personal Vehicle Sharing Across the Globe

Authors: Susan Shaheen, PhD Date: June 2012 Abstract: This special issue of the International Journal of Sustainable Transportation highlights developments in shared-use vehicle research, in particular carsharing, public bikesharing, and personal vehicle sharing. Since the mid-1980s, shared-use vehicle services have gained momentum across the world. Developments include a range of operational models—private, non-profit, and governmental ventures; advanced technology; worldwide entry and growth; collaboration and competition; and increased activity by auto rental companies and automakers. View...

Peer-To-Peer (P2P) Carsharing: Exploring Public Perception and Market Characteristics in the San Francisco Bay Area

Authors: Ingrid Ballús-Armet, Susan Shaheen, PhD, Kelly Clonts, David Weinzimmer Date: December 2014 Abstract: Peer-to-peer (P2P) carsharing is an innovative approach to vehicle sharing in which vehicle owners temporarily rent their personal automobiles to others in their surrounding area. P2P carsharing belongs to the larger sharing economy, an economic model premised on the notion of collaborative consumption as opposed to ownership. This study examines current public perception of P2P carsharing and potential market characteristics through an intercept survey conducted in the San Francisco Bay Area. Three hundred respondents from 14 locations in San Francisco (N=150) and Oakland (N=150) were polled on their existing attitudes towards and perceptions of classic carsharing, peer-to-peer carsharing, and the sharing economy. The survey results indicate that there remains a low awareness of P2P carsharing, with under 50% of San Francisco respondents and 25% of Oakland respondents having heard of the term. Approximately 25% of surveyed vehicle owners would be willing to share their personal vehicles through P2P carsharing, citing liability and trust concerns as primary deterrents. Those who drive almost every day were less open to renting through P2P, while those who used public transit at least once per week expressed a greater interest in it. Overall, the results of this study indicate considerable interest in P2P carsharing—60% of San Francisco respondents and 75% of Oakland respondents without vehicle access would consider renting a P2P vehicle. The top three reasons for using P2P carsharing include: convenience and availability, monetary savings, and expanded mobility options. Further outreach and education are needed to raise awareness of this mobility innovation. View...

Exploring Electric Vehicle Carsharing As A Mobility Option for Older Adults:A Case Study of A Senior Adult Community in The San Francisco Bay Area

Authors: Susan Shaheen, PhD, Lauren Cano, Madonna Camel Date: January 2015 Abstract: By the year 2030, 57 million people will be over the age of 65 in the United States. Baby Boomers drive approximately 17% more than other age groups and are active well past retirement. This paper examines electric vehicle (EV) carsharing (short-term vehicle access) as a future alternative to vehicle ownership for older adults living on fixed incomes in a gated community to provide reduced cost mobility and eliminate vehicle maintenance hassles. The authors conducted a study of the response to the EV carsharing concept in a senior community in Northern California, between Winter 2009 and Spring 2011, to gauge early adoption potential. The study consisted of in-depth interviews (n=7), four focus groups (n=31), and survey data collection (n=443) with residents of the Rossmoor Senior Adult Community in Walnut Creek, California. Eighty-three percent of survey respondents drive short distances often (eight kilometers (km) five times/month); 100% of interview participants plan their trips in advance; and 77% of focus group subjects made changes to their driving behavior due to high fuel prices. These findings are indicators that an EV carsharing program could potentially complement travel patterns and price sensitivity. Finally, the survey results indicate that 30% of all respondents were interested in participating in an EV carsharing program, while 36% were “maybe” interested. If the carsharing fleet also contained non-EVs, 71% of community-wide survey participants were interested or “maybe” interested in participation. Inclusion of EVs and non-EVs in the carsharing fleet would likely increase interest and participation overall. View...

One-Way Carsharing’s Evolution and Operator Perspectives from the Americas

Authors: Susan Shaheen, PhD, Nelson Chan, Helen Micheaux Date: May 2015 Abstract: Classic roundtrip carsharing has been documented as a strategy to reduce car ownership and vehicle miles/kilometers traveled in urban areas. The expansion of carsharing and other forms of shared-use mobility have led to a growing interest in understanding the latest models. In recent years, one-way carsharing has gained momentum across the globe with 18 operators providing services in ten countries worldwide. One-way carsharing does not require its users to return the vehicle to the same location from which it was accessed (in contrast to roundtrip carsharing). Users typically pay by the minute versus the hour and do not require a reservation. There are two one-way models: free-floating and station-based. Free-floating carsharing allows vehicles to be picked up and left anywhere within a designated operating area, while station-based requires users to return vehicles to an available station. In Fall 2013, the authors conducted a survey of 26 roundtrip and five one-way carsharing operators in the Americas (U.S., Canada, Mexico, and Brazil) to understand their perspectives on one-way carsharing and its future. Almost 70 % of roundtrip operators viewed one-way carsharing as a complement to roundtrip carsharing, while 19 % viewed it as a competitor. Twelve percent perceived it as both a complement and competitor. Operators noted public transit, smartcard, and electric vehicle integration as key to this model’s expansion. Half of respondents believed one-way and roundtrip carsharing have similar social and environmental impacts. Given limited understanding of its impacts, more research is needed to document the benefits of one-way carsharing and to help inform policymaking and urban mobility. View...