Shared Micromoblity Policy Toolkit: Docked and Dockless Bike and Scooter Sharing

Authors: Susan Shaheen, Ph.D., Adam Cohen Date: April 2019 Abstract: This toolkit outlines policies and practices for cities integrating shared micromobility into the built environment. The toolkit is divided into four sections that: 1) define shared micromobility and its impacts, 2) describe users of shared micromobility and market potential, 3) review best practices and case studies for curb space management and related policies, and 4) provide a summary of key findings from the toolkit. View...

Shared-Use Vehicle Services for Sustainable Transportation: Carsharing, Bikesharing, and Personal Vehicle Sharing Across the Globe

Authors: Susan Shaheen, PhD Date: June 2012 Abstract: This special issue of the International Journal of Sustainable Transportation highlights developments in shared-use vehicle research, in particular carsharing, public bikesharing, and personal vehicle sharing. Since the mid-1980s, shared-use vehicle services have gained momentum across the world. Developments include a range of operational models—private, non-profit, and governmental ventures; advanced technology; worldwide entry and growth; collaboration and competition; and increased activity by auto rental companies and automakers. View...

Understanding the Diffusion of Public Bikesharing Systems: Evidence from Europe and North America

Authors: Stephen Parkes, Greg Mardsen, Susan Shaheen, PhD, Adam Cohen Date: July 2013 Abstract: Since the mid-2000s, public bikesharing (also known as ‘‘bike hire’’) has developed and spread into a new form of mobility in cities across the globe. This paper presents an analysis of the recent increase in the number of public bikesharing systems. Bikesharing is the shared use of a bicycle fleet, which is accessible to the public and serves as a form of public transportation. The initial system designs were pioneered in Europe and, after a series of technological innovations, appear to have matured into a system experiencing widespread adoption. There are also signs that the policy of public bikesharing systems is transferable and is being adopted in other contexts outside Europe. In public policy, the technologies that are transferred can be policies, technologies, ideals or systems. This paper seeks to describe the nature of these systems, how they have spread in time and space, how they have matured in different contexts, and why they have been adopted. Researchers provide an analysis from Europe and North America. The analysis draws on published data sources, a survey of 19 systems, and interviews with 12 decision-makers in Europe and 14 decision-makers in North America. The data are examined through the lens of diffusion theory, which allows for comparison of the adoption process in different contexts. A mixture of quantitative and qualitative analyses is used to explore the reasons for adoption decisions in different cities. The paper concludes that Europe is still in a major adoption process with new systems emerging and growth in some existing systems, although some geographic...

Bicycle Evolution in China: From the 1900s to the Present

Authors: Hua Zhang, Susan Shaheen, PhD, Xingpeng Chen Date: October 2013 Abstract: This article examines four phases in bicycle evolution in China from initial entry and slow growth (1900s to 1978), to rapid growth (1978 to 1995), bicycle use reduction (1995 to 2002), and policy diversification (2002 to present). Two bicycle innovations, electric bikes, and public bikesharing (the shared use of a bicycle fleet), are also explored in this article. Electric bikes could provide a transitional mode on the pathway to bicycle and public transportation integration or to small battery electric cars. Four lessons have been learned from China’s electric bike experience relevant to government policy and management. Public bikesharing represents an important step towards integrating the bicycle with bus, metro, and rail systems. Five early operational lessons have been identified from China’s limited public bikesharing experience. View...

Public Bikesharing in North America: Early Operator Understanding and Emerging Trends

Authors: Susan Shaheen, PhD, Adam Cohen, Elliot Martin, PhD Date: March 2013 Abstract: Public bikesharing—the shared use of a bicycle fleet by the public—is an innovative mobility strategy that has recently emerged in major North American cities. Bikesharing systems typically position bicycles throughout an urban environment, among a network of docking stations, for immediate access. Approximately five years ago, information technology (or IT)-based bikesharing services began to emerge in North America. Between 2007 and March 2013, 28 IT-based programs have been deployed–24 are operational, two are temporarily suspended, and two are now defunct in the United States (U.S.) and Canada. Bikesharing growth potential in North America is examined on the basis of a survey of all 15 IT-based public bikesharing systems operating in the U.S. and all four programs deployed in Canada, as of January 2012. These programs accounted for 172,070 users and 5,238 bicycles and 44,352 users and 6,235 bicycles in the U.S. and Canada, respectively, in January 2012. This paper reviews early operator understanding of North American public bikesharing and discusses emerging trends for prospective program start-ups.Public bikesharing—the shared use of a bicycle fleet by the public—is an innovative mobility strategy that has recently emerged in major North American cities. Bikesharing systems typically position bicycles throughout an urban environment, among a network of docking stations, for immediate access. Approximately five years ago, information technology (or IT)-based bikesharing services began to emerge in North America. Between 2007 and March 2013, 28 IT-based programs have been deployed–24 are operational, two are temporarily suspended, and two are now defunct in the United States (U.S.) and Canada. Bikesharing growth potential in North...