Zero- and Low-Emission Vehicles in U.S. Carsharing Fleets: Impacts of Exposure on Member Perceptions

Authors: Susan Shaheen, Elliot Martin, Apaar Bansal Date Published: September 22, 2015 Abstract: The California Zero-Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Mandate, adopted in 1990, was aimed at increasing the sale and dissemination of low- or zero-emission vehicles throughout the California auto market. ZEVs include plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHVs) and all-electric vehicles (EVs). In an attempt to accelerate the exposure of ZEVs in the general population, in 2001, additional credits were allotted to automakers in return for placing ZEVs into transportation networks, such as carsharing fleets. This policy is set to end in 2018. This white paper presents the results of a study that evaluated the impacts of ZEV exposure on United States carsharing users. Two surveys were administered to members of several carsharing organizations that use PHVs or EVs in their fleet including: car2go, DriveNow, eGo, and Zipcar. One was a control group survey, which was comprised of 1,742 respondents, and the other was an experimental group survey, covering 1,920 respondents. The results support that exposure to PHVs or EVs through carsharing has influenced customer ZEV perceptions to be more positive and has commensurately increased the propensity for an individual to buy a ZEV. Furthermore, the data suggest that certain socio-demographic groups, such as younger people and women, are more interested in purchasing these vehicles after using them in carsharing....

Integrated Hydrogen and Intelligent Transportation Systems Evaluation for the California Department of Transportation

Authors: Timothy Lipman, Ph.D, Susan Shaheen, Ph.D Date Published: November 02, 2005 Abstract: This “Integrated Hydrogen/Intelligent Transportation Systems Evaluation for the California Department of Transportation” project was conceived to investigate hydrogen activities in the State and around the U.S. that might impact the California Department of Transportation’s (Caltrans) operations. The project is intended to review these activities and to suggest potential interesting applications of combined hydrogen and intelligent transportation system (ITS) technologies. This project was conducted by researchers at the University of California – Berkeley under California Partners for Advanced Transportation and Highways (PATH) Task Order 5112. The main theme underlying this study is the potential for synergies between two rapidly evolving areas of advanced transportation and energy technology: hydrogen energy systems and ITS. We hypothesize that concepts and schemes that combine these two types of technologies can help to enable the potential use of hydrogen infrastructure by, first and foremost, allowing communication and mapping/navigation technologies to optimize the access to and operation of initially sparse hydrogen refueling networks. Additional benefits include helping to contend with the potentially limited driving range of initial hydrogen-powered vehicles and exposing consumers to new technologies in ways that do not require purchasing them, such as through fleet/motor pool, transit, and carsharing (i.e., short-term vehicle rentals) organization operations....

Behavioral Response to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles and Refueling: Results of California Drive Clinics

Authors: Elliot Martin, Susan Shaheen, Timothy Lipman, Jeffrey Lidicker Published: December 1, 2009 Abstract: Over the last several decades, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) have emerged as a zero tailpipe-emission alternative to the battery electric vehicle (EV).   To address questions about consumer reaction to FCVs, this report presents the results of a “ride-and-drive” clinic series (n=182) held in 2007 with a Mercedes-Benz A-Class “F-Cell” hydrogen FCV. The clinic evaluated participant reactions to driving and riding in an FCV, as well as vehicle refueling. Pre-and post clinic surveys assessed consumer response.  More than 80% left with a positive overall impression of hydrogen. The majority expressed a willingness to travel five to ten minutes to find a hydrogen station. More than 90% of participants would consider an FCV driving range of 300 miles (480 kilometers) to be acceptable. Stated willingness-to-pay preferences were explored.  The results show that short-term exposure can improve consumer perceptions of hydrogen performance and safety among people who are the more likely early adopters. View...

Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Fuel Consumption: Sustainable Approaches for Surface Transportation

Authors: Susan Shaheen, Timothy Lipman Published: June 1, 2006 Abstract: Climated change is rapidly becoming known as a tangible issue that must be addressed to avoid major environmental consequences in the future. Recent change in public opinion has been caused by the physical signs of climate change–melting glaciers, rising sea levels, more severe storm and drought events, and hotter average global temperatures annually. Transportation is a major contributor of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gas emissions from human activity, accounting for approximately 14 percent of total anthropogenic emissions globally and about 27 percent in the U.S. Fortunately, transportation technologies and strategies are emerging that can help to meet the climate challenge. These include automotive and fuel technologies, intelligent transportation systems (ITS), and mobility management strategies that can reduce the demand for private vehicles. While the climate change benefits of innovative engine and vehicle technologies are relatively well understood, there are fewer studies available on the energy and emission impacts of ITS and mobility management strategies. In the future, ITS and mobility management will likely play a greater role in reducing fuel consumption. Studies are often based on simulation modes, scenarios analysis, and limited deployment experience. Thus, more research is needed to quantify potential impacts. Of the nine technologies examined, traffic signal control, electronic toll collection, bus rapid transit, and traveler information have been deployed more widely and demonstrated positive impacts (but often on a limited basis). Mobility management approaches that have established the greatest CO2 reduction potential in Europe and Canada, to date, include road pricing policies (congestion and cordon) and carsharing (short-term auto access). Other approaches have also indicated CO2...

California’s Zero-Emission Vehicle Mandate – Linking Clean-Fuel Cars, Carsharing, and Station Car Strategies

Authors: Susan Shaheen, John Wright, and Daniel Sperling Date: October 01, 2002 Abstract: To reduce transportation emissions and energy consumption, policy makers typically employ one of two approaches-changing technology or changing behavior. These strategies include demand management tools, such as ridesharing and vehicle control technologies that involve cleaner fuels and fuel economy. Despite the benefits of a combined policy approach, these strategies are normally employed separately. Nevertheless, they have been linked occasionally, for instance in the electric station car programs of the 1990s. Station cars are vehicles used by transit riders at the start or end of a trip. In 1990, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) focused on reducing mobile air pollution by mandating that automakers introduce clean vehicles through its Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Mandate. In 1998, significant flexibility was introduced through partial ZEV credits for very low-emission vehicles. In 2000, CARB left the ZEV mandate intact, but began considering new apporaches, including station cars and carsharing. Carsharing is the short-term use of a shared-use vehicle fleet. In January 2001, recognizing the potential for station cars and carsharing to further improve air quality by reducing vehicle miles traveled–particularly with transit linkages–CARB proposed additional ZEV credits for vehicles in such programs. Thus, the mandate would formally link demand management and clean vehicles. Explored are carsharing and station car developments, lessons learned, the ZEV mandate, and the proposed credit structure. Finally, policy and research recommendations are discussed for enhancing the success and effect of this combined approach. View PDF...