Authors: Elliot Martin, PhD, Adam Cohen, Susan Shaheen, PhD
Date: February 2023
The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) Mobility on Demand (MOD) Sandbox effort developed around a vision of a multimodal, integrated, automated, accessible, and connected transportation system in which personalized mobility is a key feature. FTA selected 11 MOD Sandbox demonstration projects that tested strategies intended to advance the MOD vision. An independent evaluation (IE) is required by federal public transportation law 49 U.S.C. § 5312(e)(4) for demonstration projects receiving FTA Public Transportation Innovation funding.
This report provides a synthesis of findings from the 11 MOD Sandbox Demonstrations independent evaluation. The report presents an overview of the IE methodology and evaluation framework employed for developing test procedures and conducting the evaluations. Cross-cutting findings from the data analysis on user impacts and systems operations are explored alongside a variety of institutional factors that influenced project development and outcomes (data sharing, public-private partnerships, characteristics of service provision, cost-effectiveness, marketing of services). Considerations for future mobility innovation demonstration programs gathered through interviews with project partners are also included. Finally, site-specific summaries of findings from each of the 11 evaluations are shared in an appendix. The report offers transportation practitioners an overview of the impacts of the MOD Sandbox program and individual demonstration projects and gives insights for the planning, procurement, operations, and evaluation of technology-enabled mobility initiatives.